"Air", to provide a dog with a period to empty his bladder and bowels.

"airing, to air" the period so provided for a dog to empty his bladder and bowels.

"Amateur" an individual who has not derived or attempted to derive any part of his livelihood from or showing of field or hunting dogs (as defined by the National Amateur Retriever Club).the training, handling,

"Amateur All-Age Stake" for dogs over six months of age, if handled in that stake by persons who are Amateurs (as determined by the Field Trial Committee of the trial-giving club).

"Amateur Field Champion", AFC a retriever who has won fifteen points, including a first place at an all breed retriever trial, in Open or Limited stakes when handled by an Amateur, or in Amateur stakes at licensed retriever trials; or one who has won a National or National Amateur Championship Stake. "angling" diagonally traversing terrain or entering water other than on perpendicular lines.

"area of fall" means the area around the spot where the bird lands, which is the centre of the area of fall. The dog is allowed a reasonable radius of the fall in which to hunt out the bird.

"back" (1). a term meaning "farther away from the handler"; (2). a directional signal given with the raised arm and :,and, directing the dog away from the handler, (3) a the verbal command issued to the dog to direct him away from the handler, or to release him from the heel-sit position for a blind retrieve.

"baseball" primary drill for teaching directional casts, right or left "over" and "back" casts.

"bench show" a dog show, judged on conformation and beauty according to breed standards.

"bird bagged" retrieving condition in which the dog allows the scent of bird crates to interfere with his hunt.

"bird boy" a trial worker who places the bird for a blind retrieve, or a person who throws the bird or bumper for the dog to retrieve.

"birdiness" is high appreciation of feathers, a desirable quality in dogs.

"blind retrieve" (land or water) any retrieve in which the dog does not know the location of the bird or bumper, but the handler does.

"Board" means the Board of Directors of The Canadian Kennel Club.

"bolter" a dog who runs away from the trainer and training area.

"break" an attempt to retrieve without the handler's command to do so.

"breaking" means a dog that leaves to retrieve a mark or blind before the handler has been told to "send him" by the judges.

"bye dog" means a dog, not entered in the lest, who will pick up marks in order to enable the last honouring dog to be tested.

"bumper", dummy a plastic or canvas boat fender, usually cylindrical, and approximately the size of a bird; most have a throwing rope attached.

"bumper gun" a gas-powered training aid capable of mechanically throwing bumpers long distances.

"call backs" means dogs that have successfully completed the test to the satisfaction of the judges are called back to continue the testing (dogs that have failed any part of the testing are not called beck to continue running)

"cast" a directional hand and/or voice signal from trainer to dog.

"cast refusal, C.R." a dog's unwillingness to respond to handler's direction or cast.

"CD" Companion Dog, first obedience title.

"C.D.X." Companion Dog Excellent, second obedience title.

"channeling" swimming along, deep, narrow body of water.

"CKC" means The Canadian Kennel Club.

"Club" means The Canadian Kennel Club.

"CNFC" Canadian National Field Champion.

"cold blind" any blind retrieve that the dog has never run or practiced before. compartmentalizing a system of separating diverse training methods.

"complainant" means any person who has laid a charge or complaint against another person, partnership, company or organization relative to contravention of these rules, regulations, procedures end policies of The Canadian Kennel Club.

"controlled break" in the Derby and Qualifying stakes, when a dog makes a slight break and is brought immediately under control. He may not necessarily be eliminated, but rather penalized for unsteadiness.

"cover" any grass, brush, vegetation, or trees that may conceal the bird or dog and affect scenting conditions.

"creeping" a dog's forward movement from the line while marking; just short of breaking.

"cue" an audible reminder or instruction to the dog.

"cunningness" a defiant, unwilling attitude.

"debar" means to prohibit a person from participating in any competition or other activities ides directed, sanctioned, sponsored or authorized by The Canadian Kennel Club if held under its auspices or under any of its rules and regulations.

"defendant" means any person, partnership, company or organization against whom a charge or complaint has been laid, relative to the contravention of these rules, regulations, procedures and policies of The Canadian Kennel Club.

"deliver to hand" means the dog shall deli,,, the bird to the handler, give it up willingly without dropping it and should stand or sit close to his handler at the line determined by the judge.

"deprive of privileges" means to deprive a nonmember of all privleges accorded to non-members of The Canadian Kennel Club, including the use of the Head Office.

"Derby Stake" a stake for retrievers over six months of age who have not yet reached their second birthday.

"delay bird" any mark shot after one or more birds of a multiple are retrieved.

"diversion" an accompanying mark or blind that adds difficulty to a following mark or blind.

"dog" means a purebred dog of either sex.

"downwind" means when the wind is blowing from behind the dog so that the dog cannot acquire the scent of the bird.

"double mark" two marked fall retrieves.

"dragback" trail of incoming scent left in the field by preceding dogs and birds.

"draw" means the random selection of the conning order of the entrants.

"dry gun" or dry pop a gunner who fires without an accompanying dead bird throw or dyer.

"exhibitor" means the owner(s) or handler who enters a dog in a working certificate test.

"expel" means to terminate membership in The Canadian Kennel Club, depriving the person so expelled from all privileges of The Canadian Kennel Club.

"Field Champion, FC" a retriever who has won ten points, including a first place in an all breed retriever trial, in Open or limited stakes at licensed retriever trials; or has won a National Championship Stake.

"flat throw" see square throw.

"force-fetch" a method that teaches the dog he mart retrieve when commanded. forty-nine-day theory canine behaviorists' belief in the optimum time (seven weeks after birth) for the developing puppy to leave the litter.

"fountain" or "momma and poppa" a gun station that throws two marks, one to each side of the position, in sequence.

"freezing" a dog's total refusal to give up the bird to the handler.

"gallery" means anyone watching the test including owners, handlers and spectators (Gallery etiquette includes being quiet while a dog is on It, and working and not being distractive when the handler is trying to handle the dog on a blind/ mark)

"grocery list" a system of assessing the difficulty of terrain in marks and blinds.

"gunner or guns" positions or people who throw and shoot birds as marks.

"handle" a directional cast or gesture from the handler.

"handler" means the person handling the dog in the working certificate test.

"Head Office" means the office at which the business of The Canadian Kennel Club is carried out on a regular ongoing basis.

"happy bumper" a frivolous fun mark. hardmouth to rough or abuse the retrieved game.

"heavy cover" means hard going for the dog such as deep grass, bull-rushes or mud.

"holding blind or screen" a fabric enclosure for dog and handler to stand behind, intended to obscure the dog's view of forthcoming tests.

"honour" means a test of steadiness in which a dog observes another dog's work

"honoring" a dog's remaining seated in alert readiness on the line while another dog works.

"immediate family" means spouse, father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sister, grandparents and significant other

"indented bird" term used to describe angle of throw, such as ninety degrees, square, or "flat" throw.

"JAM" Judges' Award of Merit: a green ribbon given to any unplaced dog for excellent work.

"kennel" a dog run; or a trainer's or breeder's facility.

"kennel walker" a nervous, high-strung dog who paces his kennel.

"key bird" the most difficult mark of a multiple.

"Licensed Trial" a trial licensed by the AKC where championship points are given.

"light cover" means approximately ankle deep and not too thick cover

"Limited All-Age Stake" a stake for dogs over six months of age that have previously placed or been awarded a judges' Award of Merit in an Open Stake, or that have been placed first or second in a Qualifying Stake, or placed or awarded a JAM in an Amateur Stake carrying championship points.

"line" 1. in a field trial, the specific spot designated by the judges from where the handler works his dog; 2. the acceptable straight path of travel from the handler to a blind retrieve.

"line manners" a dog and handler's demeanor on the way to the line and while working under judgment.

"lining" the handler's adjustment in setting up the position of his dog before running a blind or mark.

"lining the blind" executing a perfect line of travel between the handler and blind without whistles or casts.

"mark, single" a shot flyer, thrown dead bird, or bumper that the dog watches and retrieves; a multiple mark can be a double, triple, or quadruple. Also "mark" means a bird that is thrown so that the dog can see it in the air and where it lands

"marshal" means the person who helps the judges in setting-up the test and is in charge of communications between the judges and handlers

"moderate cover" means usually between ankle and knee deep cover; clover, retch, hay

"National Amateur Retriever Trial" the trial for dogs who have qualified during the previous year, held each year to determine the National Amateur Champion of that year. Dogs may be handled by Amateurs only.

"National Retriever Trial" the trial for dogs who have qualified during the previous year, held each year to determine the National Champion of that year. Dogs may be handled by Amateurs or professionals.

"NFC" National Field Champion.

"no-bird" mean a bird that has landed in the wrong place or one that was not thrown high enough to be clearly risible to the dug. On a mark, either judge can call a no-bird and the handler must control his dog and remove him from the line

"old fall" the place where another bird has previously been retrieved, leaving a scent that may divert a dog in a subsequent retrieve.

"Open All-Age Stake" a stake for all dogs over six months of age.

"over" 1. a term denoting "in a lateral direction"; 2. a signal, given with the arm and hand, directing the dog in a lateral direction; 3, a verbal command issued to the dog to send him in a lateral direction; q. a movement of a dog in a lateral direction.

"over and under" a configuration of marks in which a long deep bird falls on the same line as a shorter mark.

"outcross" a breeding made between unrelated family bloodlines.

"owner" means the owner or owners as stated on the registration certificate of the dog

"pattern" any familiar or memorized drill.

"permanent blind" a memorized pattern blind made to teach line running and build confidence.

"pick up" 1. the physical act and the dog's ayle in picking up his game; 2. "Pick up your dog"-judges' request of the handler to call in or remove his dog from the field.

"pin", pinpoint mark a direct, faultless, accurate retrieve.

"poison" or "leave it" bird a marked bird that the dog is instructed to ignore before executing another task.

"poison ground" or point an area deliberately scented or "salted" with bird scent by the judges.

"pop" 1. the dog stops his hunt or line of travel and looks to the handler for assistance on a mark or blind; 2. firing a gun to accompany a thrown mark.

"popping" means when the dog stops and looks back at the handler for instruction on either a mark or a blind without being told to do so by the handler

"pull" or suction attraction to a certain area because of scent or previous mark or geographic enticement.

"quartering" orderly method of questing for game, employing the nose.

"rat trap" tool for holding and floating a bird for a water blind.

"recast" a second attempt to send the dog from the line.

"retired gun" a gun that disappears from sight after throwing and shooting a mark.

"running" in British term for breaking.

"sanctioned trial" an informal trial, sanctioned by the AKC, in which dogs compete but not for championship points.

"selection" any method of retrieving multiple marks out of the sequence in which they fall.

"series" a trial test.

"shore break" teaching process that forces the dog not to avoid water.

"sluice" added shooting of a downed bird on the water.

"spooky" shy or apprehensive; said of a dog.

"square throw" a bird thrown at an angle of 90° from a line from the dog's starting position for the retrieve to the thrower's position.

"stake" event or contest.

"staunch" or steady not moving to retrieve until commanded to do so.

"sticking" a hesitation or reluctance on the dog's part to give the retrieved bird to the handler.

"studdiness" sexy behavior in a male dog.

"style" a dog's willingness, ability, and manner of retrieving, as characterized by desire, speed, courage, and attitude.

"switch" to leave the area of one mark after hunting for it and go to another, more easily remembered mark.

"switching" means when the dog starts out to retrieve one bird, reaches the area of the fall, hunts for the bird, then, not being able to find the bird, I caves the area of the fall and goes to the area of the fall for another mark

"suspend" means to deprive a member, for the period ordered, of all the privileges of The Canadian Kennel Club

"under judgement" means a dog is order judgement from the time the handler says he is ready until the bird has been delivered to the handler and returned to the judges. In the WCI and WCX tests the dog is under judgement as soon as he leaves the holding blind to come to line. Judging is a~nunuous until the dog kates the line (a handler should not touch his dog at any time while it is underjudgement in either WCI or WCX)

"upwind" means the dog is facing into the wind so that the dog can acquire the sent of the bird.

"walk-up" a trial test intended to simulate actual hunting: The handler, with dog at heel, judges, and gunners, all advance together in the field before the birds are thrown and shot.

"water refusal" a dog's unwillingness to go into the water after being directed to do so.

"whistle commands" repeated short toots means "come in"; one long blast means "sit"

"whistle refusal" a dog's failure to respond to the whistle command; often called a "slipped whistle."

"working cerfificate test" is a general term which includes all the different test levels (WC, WCI, WCX) that may be offered.

"Working Certificate Test" (WC) means the Working Certificate Test level which is offered at working certificate tests.

"Working Certificate Intermediate Test" (WCO means the Working Certificate Intermediate Test levelwhich is offered at working certificate tests.

"Working Certificate Excellent Test" (WCX) means the Working Certificate Excellent Test level which is offered at working certificate tests This rule book shall be read with all applicable changes in gender so that the masculine shall include the feminine and vice versa, and the singular shall include the plural if applicable.

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